managing blood sugar levels

Understanding Diabetes: Key Terms and Tips for Managing Your Health

Diabetes management can be a complex journey filled with various medical terms and care practices. Whether you're newly diagnosed or have been managing diabetes for years, understanding these terms can empower you to take better control of your health. Here we offer practical advice for everyday management.

1. Blood Glucose Levels

Blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are a constant concern for those with diabetes. Monitoring these levels is crucial as it informs decisions on diet, exercise, and medication. The goal is to keep blood glucose within a target range to avoid both short-term and long-term complications. Use a blood glucose meter as directed by your health care provider to check levels regularly.

2. A1C Test

The A1C test is a common blood test used to diagnose type 1 and type 2 diabetes and then to gauge how well you’re managing your diabetes. The A1C test measures your average blood glucose for the past 2 to 3 months. The Australian Diabetes Association's recommends an A1C of less than 7% for most adults with diabetes. Changes in your medication, diet, or exercise plans may be necessary based on the results.

3. Insulin

Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar. For many people with diabetes, taking insulin is a critical part of maintaining healthy blood glucose levels. There are different types of insulin based on how quickly they work, when they peak, and how long they last. Insulin delivery can be through injections or a pump which provides a steady amount of insulin throughout the day.

4. Hypoglycemia and Hyperglycemia

  • Hypoglycemia refers to dangerously low blood glucose levels that can occur in people with diabetes, particularly if they are on insulin or certain other medications. Symptoms include shaking, confusion, dizziness, and possible loss of consciousness. It’s essential to treat hypoglycemia promptly by consuming 15-20 grams of glucose or simple carbohydrates.
  • Hyperglycemia is the term for high blood sugar. If your blood glucose is too high, it can lead to a diabetic coma or other severe complications like ketoacidosis, especially in type 1 diabetes. Managing hyperglycemia involves adjusting your insulin dosage, medication, or lifestyle changes.

5. Diabetic Diet

Diet plays a critical role in diabetes management. Foods high in nutrients, low in fat and calories, and medium to low in carbohydrates are the cornerstone of a diabetic diet. Focus on fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein. Meal planning tools like carbohydrate counting or using a diabetes food plate can help keep your blood sugar level within your target range.

6. Exercise

Regular physical activity is another pillar of diabetes control. Exercise helps moderate blood sugar by increasing insulin sensitivity. Aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate aerobic activity, such as brisk walking, or 75 minutes of vigorous activity, such as running each week, along with two sessions of strength training.

7. Diabetes Management Plan

Work with your healthcare team to create a diabetes management plan tailored to your health needs. This plan includes guidelines on monitoring your blood glucose, taking medications, handling meals, and exercise. Regular check-ups with your healthcare provider are crucial to adjust your management plan as needed.


Understanding and using these key diabetic terms can help you navigate the challenges of managing diabetes more effectively. Remember, you’re not alone in this—there are numerous resources and support networks available to help you manage your diabetes and live a healthy, active life.

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